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Agriculture was the only appropriate way of life for the Hua-Hsia. The Chinese classics use compounds of these four generic names in localized "barbarian tribes" exonyms such as "west and north" Rongdi , "south and east" Manyi , Nanyibeidi "barbarian tribes in the south and the north," and Manyirongdi "all kinds of barbarians.

The Chinese had at least two reasons for vilifying and depreciating the non-Chinese groups. On the one hand, many of them harassed and pillaged the Chinese, which gave them a genuine grievance.

On the other, it is quite clear that the Chinese were increasingly encroaching upon the territory of these peoples, getting the better of them by trickery, and putting many of them under subjection.

By vilifying them and depicting them as somewhat less than human, the Chinese could justify their conduct and still any qualms of conscience.

Pulleyblank says the name Yi "furnished the primary Chinese term for 'barbarian'," but "Paradoxically the Yi were considered the most civilized of the non-Chinese peoples.

Some Chinese classics romanticize or idealize barbarians, comparable to the western noble savage construct. For instance, the Confucian Analects records:.

The translator Arthur Waley noted that, "A certain idealization of the 'noble savage' is to be found fairly often in early Chinese literature", citing the Zuo Zhuan maxim, "When the Emperor no longer functions, learning must be sought among the 'Four Barbarians,' north, west, east, and south.

From ancient to modern times the Chinese attitude toward people not Chinese in culture—"barbarians"—has commonly been one of contempt, sometimes tinged with fear It must be noted that, while the Chinese have disparaged barbarians, they have been singularly hospitable both to individuals and to groups that have adopted Chinese culture.

And at times they seem to have had a certain admiration, perhaps unwilling, for the rude force of these peoples or simpler customs.

In a somewhat related example, Mencius believed that Confucian practices were universal and timeless, and thus followed by both Hua and Yi, " Shun was an Eastern barbarian; he was born in Chu Feng, moved to Fu Hsia, and died in Ming T'iao.

Their native places were over a thousand li apart, and there were a thousand years between them. Yet when they had their way in the Central Kingdoms, their actions matched like the two halves of a tally.

The standards of the two sages, one earlier and one later, were identical. Yi countries are therefore virtuous places where people live long lives.

This is why Confucius wanted to go to yi countries when the dao could not be realized in the central states. Some Chinese characters used to transcribe non-Chinese peoples were graphically pejorative ethnic slurs , in which the insult derived not from the Chinese word but from the character used to write it.

For instance, the Written Chinese transcription of Yao "the Yao people ", who primarily live in the mountains of southwest China and Vietnam.

According to the archeologist William Meacham, it was only by the time of the late Shang dynasty that one can speak of " Chinese ," " Chinese culture ," or "Chinese civilization.

The fundamental criterion of "Chinese-ness," anciently and throughout history, has been cultural. The Chinese have had a particular way of life, a particular complex of usages, sometimes characterized as li.

Groups that conformed to this way of life were, generally speaking, considered Chinese. Those that turned away from it were considered to cease to be Chinese.

It was the process of acculturation, transforming barbarians into Chinese, that created the great bulk of the Chinese people. The barbarians of Western Chou times were, for the most part, future Chinese, or the ancestors of future Chinese.

This is a fact of great importance. It is significant, however, that we almost never find any references in the early literature to physical differences between Chinese and barbarians.

Insofar as we can tell, the distinction was purely cultural. Thought in ancient China was oriented towards the world, or tianxia , "all under heaven.

It was believed that the barbarian could be culturally assimilated. In the Age of Great Peace, the barbarians would flow in and be transformed: the world would be one.

According to the Pakistani academic M. Shahid Alam , "The centrality of culture, rather than race, in the Chinese world view had an important corollary.

The people of those five regions — the Middle states, and the [Rong], [Yi] and other wild tribes around them — had all their several natures, which they could not be made to alter.

The tribes on the east were called [Yi]. They had their hair unbound, and tattooed their bodies. Some of them ate their food without its being cooked with fire.

Those on the south were called Man. They tattooed their foreheads, and had their feet turned toward each other. Those on the west were called [Rong].

They had their hair unbound, and wore skins. Some of them did not eat grain-food. Those on the north were called [Di]. They wore skins of animals and birds, and dwelt in caves.

Dikötter explains the close association between nature and nurture. The shufan , or 'cooked barbarians', were tame and submissive.

The consumption of raw food was regarded as an infallible sign of savagery that affected the physiological state of the barbarian. Some Warring States period texts record a belief that the respective natures of the Chinese and the barbarian were incompatible.

Mencius, for instance, once stated: "I have heard of the Chinese converting barbarians to their ways, but not of their being converted to barbarian ways.

Only the barbarian might eventually change by adopting Chinese ways. However, different thinkers and texts convey different opinions on this issue.

The prominent Tang Confucian Han Yu, for example, wrote in his essay Yuan Dao the following: "When Confucius wrote the Chunqiu , he said that if the feudal lords use Yi ritual, then they should be called Yi; If they use Chinese rituals, then they should be called Chinese.

Hence, the historian John King Fairbank wrote, "the influence on China of the great fact of alien conquest under the Liao-Jin-Yuan dynasties is just beginning to be explored.

At the same time, they also tried to retain their own indigenous culture. Similarly, according to Fudan University historian Yao Dali, even the supposedly "patriotic" hero Wen Tianxiang of the late Song and early Yuan period did not believe the Mongol rule to be illegitimate.

In fact, Wen was willing to live under Mongol rule as long as he was not forced to be a Yuan dynasty official, out of his loyalty to the Song dynasty.

Yao explains that Wen chose to die in the end because he was forced to become a Yuan official. So, Wen chose death due to his loyalty to his dynasty, not because he viewed the Yuan court as a non-Chinese, illegitimate regime and therefore refused to live under their rule.

Many Han Chinese writers did not celebrate the collapse of the Mongols and the return of the Han Chinese rule in the form of the Ming dynasty government at that time.

Many Han Chinese actually chose not to serve in the new Ming court at all due to their loyalty to the Yuan.

Some Han Chinese also committed suicide on behalf of the Mongols as a proof of their loyalty. On a side note, one of his key advisors, Liu Ji, generally supported the idea that while the Chinese and the non-Chinese are different, they are actually equal.

Liu was therefore arguing against the idea that the Chinese were and are superior to the "Yi. These things show that many times, pre-modern Chinese did view culture and sometimes politics rather than race and ethnicity as the dividing line between the Chinese and the non-Chinese.

In many cases, the non-Chinese could and did become the Chinese and vice versa, especially when there was a change in culture.

According to the historian Frank Dikötter , "The delusive myth of a Chinese antiquity that abandoned racial standards in favour of a concept of cultural universalism in which all barbarians could ultimately participate has understandably attracted some modern scholars.

Living in an unequal and often hostile world, it is tempting to project the utopian image of a racially harmonious world into a distant and obscure past.

The politician, historian, and diplomat K. Wu analyzes the origin of the characters for the Yi , Man , Rong , Di , and Xia peoples and concludes that the "ancients formed these characters with only one purpose in mind—to describe the different ways of living each of these people pursued.

It carried the connotation of people ignorant of Chinese culture and, therefore, 'barbarians'. Christopher I.

Beckwith makes the extraordinary claim that the name "barbarian" should only be used for Greek historical contexts, and is inapplicable for all other "peoples to whom it has been applied either historically or in modern times.

The first problem is that, "it is impossible to translate the word barbarian into Chinese because the concept does not exist in Chinese," meaning a single "completely generic" loanword from Greek barbar-.

That is very definitely not the same thing as 'barbarian'. However, he purports, "The fact that the Chinese did not like foreigner Y and occasionally picked a transcriptional character with negative meaning in Chinese to write the sound of his ethnonym, is irrelevant.

Beckwith's second problem is with linguists and lexicographers of Chinese. Even the works of well-known lexicographers such as Karlgren do this.

Compare Karlgrlen's translations of the siyi "four barbarians":. The third problem involves Tang Dynasty usages of fan "foreigner" and lu "prisoner", neither of which meant "barbarian.

It meant simply 'foreign, foreigner' without any pejorative meaning. The linguist Robert Ramsey illustrates the pejorative connotations of fan.

But that term has now been so systematically purged from the language that it is not to be found at least in that meaning even in large dictionaries, and all references to Mao's speech have excised the offending word and replaced it with a more elaborate locution, "Yao, Yi, and Yu.

Beckwith says it means something like "those miscreants who should be locked up," therefore, "The word does not even mean 'foreigner' at all, let alone 'barbarian'.

Beckwith's "The Barbarians" epilogue provides many references, but overlooks H. Creel's "The Barbarians" chapter. Creel descriptively wrote, "Who, in fact, were the barbarians?

The Chinese have no single term for them. But they were all the non-Chinese, just as for the Greeks the barbarians were all the non-Greeks.

There is also no single native Chinese word for 'foreigner', no matter how pejorative," which meets his strict definition of "barbarian.

In the Tang Dynasty houses of pleasure, where drinking games were common, small puppets in the aspect of Westerners, in a ridiculous state of drunkenness, were used in one popular permutation of the drinking game; so, in the form of blue-eyed, pointy nosed, and peak-capped barbarians, these puppets were manipulated in such a way as to occasionally fall down: then, whichever guest to whom the puppet pointed after falling was then obliged by honor to empty his cup of Chinese wine.

In Mesoamerica the Aztec civilization used the word " Chichimeca " to denominate a group of nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes that lived on the outskirts of the Triple Alliance 's Empire, in the north of Modern Mexico, and whom the Aztec people saw as primitive and uncivilized.

One of the meanings attributed to the word "Chichimeca" is "dog people". The Incas of South America used the term "puruma auca" for all peoples living outside the rule of their empire see Promaucaes.

The British, and later the European colonial settlers of the United States , referred to Native Americans as "savages.

The entry of "barbarians" into mercenary service in a metropole repeatedly occurs in history as a standard way in which peripheral peoples from and beyond frontier regions relate to "civilised" imperial powers as part of a semi- foreign militarised proletariat.

Italians in the Renaissance often called anyone who lived outside of their country a barbarian. Spanish sea captain Francisco de Cuellar , who sailed with the Spanish Armada in , used the term 'savage' 'salvaje' to describe the Irish people.

Bourgeois society stands at the crossroads, either transition to Socialism or regression into Barbarism. Luxemburg attributed it to Friedrich Engels , though — as shown by Michael Löwy — Engels had not used the term "Barbarism" but a less resounding formulation: If the whole of modern society is not to perish, a revolution in the mode of production and distribution must take place.

As things stand today capitalist civilization cannot continue; we must either move forward into socialism or fall back into barbarism.

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They had their hair unbound, and tattooed their bodies. Some of them ate their food without its being cooked with fire. Those on the south were called Man.

They tattooed their foreheads, and had their feet turned toward each other. Those on the west were called [Rong]. They had their hair unbound, and wore skins.

Some of them did not eat grain-food. Those on the north were called [Di]. They wore skins of animals and birds, and dwelt in caves.

Dikötter explains the close association between nature and nurture. The shufan , or 'cooked barbarians', were tame and submissive. The consumption of raw food was regarded as an infallible sign of savagery that affected the physiological state of the barbarian.

Some Warring States period texts record a belief that the respective natures of the Chinese and the barbarian were incompatible.

Mencius, for instance, once stated: "I have heard of the Chinese converting barbarians to their ways, but not of their being converted to barbarian ways.

Only the barbarian might eventually change by adopting Chinese ways. However, different thinkers and texts convey different opinions on this issue.

The prominent Tang Confucian Han Yu, for example, wrote in his essay Yuan Dao the following: "When Confucius wrote the Chunqiu , he said that if the feudal lords use Yi ritual, then they should be called Yi; If they use Chinese rituals, then they should be called Chinese.

Hence, the historian John King Fairbank wrote, "the influence on China of the great fact of alien conquest under the Liao-Jin-Yuan dynasties is just beginning to be explored.

At the same time, they also tried to retain their own indigenous culture. Similarly, according to Fudan University historian Yao Dali, even the supposedly "patriotic" hero Wen Tianxiang of the late Song and early Yuan period did not believe the Mongol rule to be illegitimate.

In fact, Wen was willing to live under Mongol rule as long as he was not forced to be a Yuan dynasty official, out of his loyalty to the Song dynasty.

Yao explains that Wen chose to die in the end because he was forced to become a Yuan official. So, Wen chose death due to his loyalty to his dynasty, not because he viewed the Yuan court as a non-Chinese, illegitimate regime and therefore refused to live under their rule.

Many Han Chinese writers did not celebrate the collapse of the Mongols and the return of the Han Chinese rule in the form of the Ming dynasty government at that time.

Many Han Chinese actually chose not to serve in the new Ming court at all due to their loyalty to the Yuan. Some Han Chinese also committed suicide on behalf of the Mongols as a proof of their loyalty.

On a side note, one of his key advisors, Liu Ji, generally supported the idea that while the Chinese and the non-Chinese are different, they are actually equal.

Liu was therefore arguing against the idea that the Chinese were and are superior to the "Yi. These things show that many times, pre-modern Chinese did view culture and sometimes politics rather than race and ethnicity as the dividing line between the Chinese and the non-Chinese.

In many cases, the non-Chinese could and did become the Chinese and vice versa, especially when there was a change in culture.

According to the historian Frank Dikötter , "The delusive myth of a Chinese antiquity that abandoned racial standards in favour of a concept of cultural universalism in which all barbarians could ultimately participate has understandably attracted some modern scholars.

Living in an unequal and often hostile world, it is tempting to project the utopian image of a racially harmonious world into a distant and obscure past.

The politician, historian, and diplomat K. Wu analyzes the origin of the characters for the Yi , Man , Rong , Di , and Xia peoples and concludes that the "ancients formed these characters with only one purpose in mind—to describe the different ways of living each of these people pursued.

It carried the connotation of people ignorant of Chinese culture and, therefore, 'barbarians'. Christopher I.

Beckwith makes the extraordinary claim that the name "barbarian" should only be used for Greek historical contexts, and is inapplicable for all other "peoples to whom it has been applied either historically or in modern times.

The first problem is that, "it is impossible to translate the word barbarian into Chinese because the concept does not exist in Chinese," meaning a single "completely generic" loanword from Greek barbar-.

That is very definitely not the same thing as 'barbarian'. However, he purports, "The fact that the Chinese did not like foreigner Y and occasionally picked a transcriptional character with negative meaning in Chinese to write the sound of his ethnonym, is irrelevant.

Beckwith's second problem is with linguists and lexicographers of Chinese. Even the works of well-known lexicographers such as Karlgren do this.

Compare Karlgrlen's translations of the siyi "four barbarians":. The third problem involves Tang Dynasty usages of fan "foreigner" and lu "prisoner", neither of which meant "barbarian.

It meant simply 'foreign, foreigner' without any pejorative meaning. The linguist Robert Ramsey illustrates the pejorative connotations of fan.

But that term has now been so systematically purged from the language that it is not to be found at least in that meaning even in large dictionaries, and all references to Mao's speech have excised the offending word and replaced it with a more elaborate locution, "Yao, Yi, and Yu.

Beckwith says it means something like "those miscreants who should be locked up," therefore, "The word does not even mean 'foreigner' at all, let alone 'barbarian'.

Beckwith's "The Barbarians" epilogue provides many references, but overlooks H. Creel's "The Barbarians" chapter.

Creel descriptively wrote, "Who, in fact, were the barbarians? The Chinese have no single term for them.

But they were all the non-Chinese, just as for the Greeks the barbarians were all the non-Greeks.

There is also no single native Chinese word for 'foreigner', no matter how pejorative," which meets his strict definition of "barbarian.

In the Tang Dynasty houses of pleasure, where drinking games were common, small puppets in the aspect of Westerners, in a ridiculous state of drunkenness, were used in one popular permutation of the drinking game; so, in the form of blue-eyed, pointy nosed, and peak-capped barbarians, these puppets were manipulated in such a way as to occasionally fall down: then, whichever guest to whom the puppet pointed after falling was then obliged by honor to empty his cup of Chinese wine.

In Mesoamerica the Aztec civilization used the word " Chichimeca " to denominate a group of nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes that lived on the outskirts of the Triple Alliance 's Empire, in the north of Modern Mexico, and whom the Aztec people saw as primitive and uncivilized.

One of the meanings attributed to the word "Chichimeca" is "dog people". The Incas of South America used the term "puruma auca" for all peoples living outside the rule of their empire see Promaucaes.

The British, and later the European colonial settlers of the United States , referred to Native Americans as "savages. The entry of "barbarians" into mercenary service in a metropole repeatedly occurs in history as a standard way in which peripheral peoples from and beyond frontier regions relate to "civilised" imperial powers as part of a semi- foreign militarised proletariat.

Italians in the Renaissance often called anyone who lived outside of their country a barbarian.

Spanish sea captain Francisco de Cuellar , who sailed with the Spanish Armada in , used the term 'savage' 'salvaje' to describe the Irish people.

Bourgeois society stands at the crossroads, either transition to Socialism or regression into Barbarism.

Luxemburg attributed it to Friedrich Engels , though — as shown by Michael Löwy — Engels had not used the term "Barbarism" but a less resounding formulation: If the whole of modern society is not to perish, a revolution in the mode of production and distribution must take place.

As things stand today capitalist civilization cannot continue; we must either move forward into socialism or fall back into barbarism.

Luxemburg went on to explain what she meant by "Regression into Barbarism": "A look around us at this moment [i. This World War is a regression into Barbarism.

The triumph of Imperialism leads to the annihilation of civilization. At first, this happens sporadically for the duration of a modern war, but then when the period of unlimited wars begins it progresses toward its inevitable consequences.

Today, we face the choice exactly as Friedrich Engels foresaw it a generation ago: either the triumph of Imperialism and the collapse of all civilization as in ancient Rome, depopulation, desolation, degeneration — a great cemetery.

Or the victory of Socialism, that means the conscious active struggle of the International Proletariat against Imperialism and its method of war.

The Internationalist Communist Tendency considers "Socialism or Barbarism" to be a variant of the earlier " Liberty or Death ", used by revolutionaries of different stripes since the late 18th century [].

Modern popular culture contains such fantasy barbarians as Conan the Barbarian. Howard 's "Conan" series, is set soon after the "Barbarian" protagonist had forcibly seized the turbulent kingdom of Aquilonia from King Numedides, whom he strangled upon his throne.

The story is clearly slanted to imply that the kingdom greatly benefited by power passing from a decadent and tyrannical hereditary monarch to a strong and vigorous Barbarian usurper.

Primarily it signified such peoples as the Persians and Egyptians, whose languages were unintelligible to the Greeks, but it could also be used of Greeks who spoke in a different dialect and with a different accent Prejudice toward Greeks on the part of Greeks was not limited to those who lived on the fringes of the Greek world.

The Boeotians, inhabitants of central Greece, whose credentials were impeccable, were routinely mocked for their stupidity and gluttony.

Ethnicity is a fluid concept even at the best of times. When it suited their purposes, the Greeks also divided themselves into Ionians and Dorians. The distinction was emphasized at the time of the Peloponnesian War, when the Ionian Athenians fought against the Dorian Spartans.

The Spartan general Brasidas even taxed the Athenians with cowardice on account of their Ionian lineage.

In other periods of history the Ionian-Dorian divide carried much less weight. Herodotus, speaking of some settlements held to be Pelaigic, and existing in his time, terms their language 'barbarous;' but Mueller, nor with argument insufficient, considers that the expression of the historian would apply only to a peculiar dialect; and the hypothesis is sustained by another passage in Herodotus, in which he applies to certain Ionian dialects the same term as that with which he stigmatizes the language of the Pelasgic settlements.

In corroboration of Mueller's opinion, we may also observe, that the 'barbarous-tongued' is an epithet applied by Homer to the Carians, and is rightly construed by the ancient critics as denoting a dialect mingled and unpolished, certainly not foreign.

Nor when the Agamemnon of Sophocles upbraids Teucer with 'his barbarous tongue,' would any scholar suppose that Teucer is upbraided with not speaking Greek; he is upbraided with speaking Greek inelegantly and rudely.

It is clear that they who continued with the least adulteration a language in its earliest form, would seem to utter a strange and unfamiliar jargon to ears accustomed to its more modern construction.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Person perceived to be uncivilized or primitive. For other uses, see Barbarian disambiguation and Barbarus disambiguation.

Further information: Barbarian kingdoms. Main article: Dying Galatian. See also: Dasa , Mleccha , and Dalit.

Main article: Ethnic groups in Chinese history. Main article: Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese. Further information: Viking revival , Noble savage , and Philistinism.

Penguin Press HC. Retrieved Chirping like the swallows: Aristophanes' portrayals of the barbarian "other". The Bloomsbury Companion to Aristotle.

Bloomsbury Academic. Athens: Its Rise and Fall. Kessinger Publishing, Hellenicity , p. Ancient Greeks West and East , , p.

Ladner, "On Roman attitudes towards barbarians in late antiquity" Viator 77 , pp. London: Polity, , p. The Greek Orators. Essay Index Reprint Series.

II, pp — Janson, "History of Art: A survey of the major visual arts from the dawn of history to the present day", p. Abrams, On Cannibals.

Kindle Ebooks. Eine Weltgeschichte. Europäische Kulturgeschichte und Globalisierung. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved October 27, Orient Blackswan.

Macao: East India Company Press, , and — Liu believes the Chinese in early China did not originally think of Yi as a derogatory term. The Origins of Statecraft in China.

The University of Chicago Press. See "The Barbarians" chapter, pp. Creel refers to the Shang Oracle bone inscriptions and the Qing dynasty.

SUNY Press. The Origins of Chinese civilization. University of California Press. C Lau tran. Middlesex:Penguin Books, , Lau , p. The Discourse of Race in Modern China.

Stanford University Press, p. The Chinese Heritage. New York: Crown Publishers. Princeton University Press.

Furthermore, "The entire construct is, appropriately enough, best summed up by popular European and American fiction and film treatments such as Conan the Barbarian.

The author describes his belief in religious terms; following his "enlightenment on this issue", he says no scholar who used the word barbarian "needs to be blamed for such sins of the past".

The Languages of China , p. Somervell, D. The list of barbarians who have 'come' and 'seen' as mercenaries, before imposing themselves as conquerors, is a long one.

Of all the barbarian peoples in the Han period, the Hsien-pi were probably most interested in trade. In Bispham, Edward ed. The Short Oxford History of Europe 1 ed.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. In Classen, Albrecht ed. Handbook of Medieval Culture. De Gruyter Reference. The Vikings, for instance, made for particularly convenient soldiers of fortune [ Perhaps the most famous, and certainly the most reliable early mercenaries were the Byzantine Varangian Guard.

In Marcinkowski, Christoph ed. Freiburger sozialanthropologische Studien. LIT Verlag Münster. Prehistoric Mesoamerica 3 ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press published

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